Ramayana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Ramayana or R. It consists of nearly 2. In Hindu tradition, it is considered to be the . It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal father, the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife and the ideal king. The Ramayana was an important influence on later Sanskrit poetry and Hindu life and culture.
Like the Mahabharata, the Ramayana is not just a story: it presents the teachings of ancient Hindu sages in narrative allegory, interspersing philosophical and ethical elements. The Hindu tradition is unanimous in its agreement that the poem is the work of a single poet, the sage Valmiki, a contemporary of Rama and a peripheral actor in the drama.
The story's original version in Sanskrit is known as Valmiki Ramayana. The definition of itih. According to Hindu tradition, the Ramayana takes place during a period of time known as Treta Yuga. In its extant form, Valmiki's Ramayana is an epic poem of some 2. The text survives in several thousand partial and complete manuscripts, the oldest of which is a palm- leaf manuscript found in Nepal and dated to the 1.
CE. A Times of India report dated 1. Dec 2. 01. 5 informs about discovery of a 6th- century manuscript of Ramayana at the Asiatic Society library, Kolkata. Textual scholar Robert P.
Ananta Rama Rao Valmeeki Ramayana at a glance by P. KRANTI KUMAR, Rajendranagar, Guntur.
Mahabharata, ( Sanskrit: “Great Epic of the Bharata Dynasty”) one of the two Sanskrit epic poems of ancient India (the other being the Ramayana). The Mahabharata is an important source of information on the development of. THE RAMAYANA (“The Deeds of Rama”) Valmiki once was wandering through the forest along the bank of a river, when he noticed a pair of curlews hopping about on the grass, singing sweetly. Suddenly a hunter came along and killed.
Goldman differentiates two major regional recensions: the northern(n) and the southern(s). Scholar Romesh Chunder Dutt writes that . Most Hindus still believe they are integral parts of the book, in spite of some style differences and narrative contradictions between these two chapters and the rest of the book. Krittibas Ojha's Krittivasi Ramayan(also known as Shri Rama panchali) in Bengali (c. Sarala Das' Vilanka Ramayana (c. Odia, sant. Eknath's Bhavarth Ramayan (c. Marathi, Tulsidas' Ramcharitamanas (c.
Awadhi(which is an eastern form of Hindi) and Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan's Adhyathmaramayanam in Malayalam. Some cultural evidence, such as the presence of sati in the Mahabharata but not in the main body of the Ramayana, suggests that the Ramayana predates the Mahabharata. However, the general cultural background of the Ramayana is one of the post- urbanization period of the eastern part of north India and Nepal, while the Mahabharata reflects the Kuru areas west of this, from the Rigvedic to the late Vedic period. By tradition, the text belongs to the Treta Yuga, second of the four eons (yuga) of Hindu chronology. Rama is said to have been born in the treta yuga to king Dasaratha in the Ikshvaku dynasty. The names of the characters (Rama, Sita, Dasharatha, Janaka, Vashista, Vishwamitra) are all known in late Vedic literature.
ROMESH CHUNDER DUTT, to whom English readers are indebted for the condensed metrical version of the ancient Indian epics given in this volume. Here you can browse through the great sanskrit epic - Valimiki's Ramayana in Devanagari script. This Devanagari version of the Ramayana was converted in 1999 from Prof. John Smith's CSX version of the.
However, nowhere in the surviving Vedic poetry is there a story similar to the Ramayana of Valmiki. According to the modern academic view, Vishnu, who, according to bala kanda, was incarnated as Rama, first came into prominence with the epics themselves and further, during the puranic period of the later 1st millennium CE. Also, in the epic Mahabharata, there is a version of Ramayana known as Ramopakhyana. This version is depicted as a narration to Yudhishthira.
There is general consensus that books two to six form the oldest portion of the epic, while the first and last books(bala kanda and uttara kanda, respectively) are later additions. The author or authors of bala kanda and ayodhya kanda appear to be familiar with the eastern Gangetic basin region of northern India and with the Kosala and Magadha region during the period of the sixteen Janapadas, based on the fact that the geographical and geopolitical data accords with what is known about the region. The knowledge of the location of the island of Lanka also lacks detail. Basing his assumption on these features, archeologist Hasmukh Dhirajlal Sankalia has proposed a date of the 4th century BC for the composition of the text. Historian and indologist Arthur Llewellyn Basham is of the opinion that Rama may have been a minor chief who lived in the 8th or the 7th century BC.
Characters. Portrayed as the seventh avatar of the god Vishnu, he is the eldest and favourite son of Dasharatha, the king of Ayodhya, and his Chief Queen, Kausalya. He is portrayed as the epitome of virtue. Dasharatha is forced by Kaikeyi, the second of his three wives, to command Rama to relinquish his right to the throne for fourteen years and go into exile.
He kills the evil demon Ravana, who abducted his wife Sita and later returned to Ayodhya to form an ideal state. She is daughter of Mother Earth, adopted by King Janaka and Rama's beloved wife. Rama went to Mithila (located in Janakpur, Nepal) and got a chance to marry her by breaking the Shiv Dhanush (bow) while trying to tie a knot to it in a competition organized by King Janaka of Nepal in Dhanusa.
The competition was to find the most suitable husband for Sita and many princes from different states competed to win her. Sita is the avatara of the goddess Lakshmi, the consort of Vishnu. Sita is portrayed as the epitome of female purity and virtue. She follows her husband into exile and is abducted by the demon king Ravana.
Read and enjoy the great epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata and get to know a lot more about them. The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Ramayana This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg.
She is imprisoned on the island of Lanka, until Rama rescues her by defeating Ravana. Later, she gives birth to Lava and Kusha. Hanum. He is an ideal bhakta of Rama. He is born as the son of Kesari, a Vanara king in Sumeru region and the goddess A. He plays an important part in locating Sita and in the ensuing battle. He is believed to live until our modern world.
Lak. He is the son of King Dasaratha and Queen Sumitra and twin of Shatrughna. Lakshmana is portrayed as an avatar of the Shesha, the n. He spends his time protecting Sita and Rama during which he fought the demoness Surpanakha. He is forced to leave Sita, who was deceived by the demon Maricha into believing that Rama was in trouble. Sita is abducted by Ravana upon him leaving her.
He was married to Sita's younger sister Urmila. R. He was son of a sage named Vishrava and daitya princess Kaikeshi. After performing severe penance for ten thousand years he received a boon from the creator- god Brahma: he could henceforth not be killed by gods, demons, or spirits. He is portrayed as a powerful demon king who disturbs the penances of rishis. Vishnu incarnates as the human Rama to defeat him, thus circumventing the boon given by Brahma. Ja. A demi- god who has the form of an vulture that tries to rescue Sita from Ravana.
Jatayu fought valiantly with Ravana, but as Jatayu was very old, Ravana soon got the better of him. As Rama and Lakshmana chanced upon the stricken and dying Jatayu in their search for Sita, he informs them of the direction in which Ravana had gone. Da. He has three queens, Kausalya, Kaikeyi and Sumitra, and three other sons: Bharata, Lakshmana and Shatrughna. Kaikeyi, Dasharatha's favourite queen, forces him to make his son Bharata crown prince and send Rama into exile. Dasharatha dies heartbroken after Rama goes into exile.
Bharata is the son of Dasharatha and Queen Kaikeyi. When he learns that his mother Kaikeyi had forced Rama into exile and caused Dasharatha to die brokenhearted, he storms out of the palace and goes in search of Rama in the forest. When Rama refuses to return from his exile to assume the throne, Bharata obtains Rama's sandals and places them on the throne as a gesture that Rama is the true king. Bharata then rules Ayodhya as the regent of Rama for the next fourteen years staying outside the city of Ayodhya. He was married to Mandavi. He is the youngest brother of Rama and also the twin brother of Lakshmana.
He was married to Shrutakirti. Sugr. He had an agreement with Rama through which Vaali . Sugriva ultimately ascends the throne of Kishkindha after the slaying of Vaali and fulfills his promise by putting the Vanara forces at Rama's disposal. Indrajit or Meghnadha, the eldest son of Ravana who twice defeated Rama and Lakshmana in battle, before succumbing to Lakshmana. An adept of the magical arts, he coupled his supreme fighting skills with various stratagems to inflict heavy losses on the Vanara army before his death.
Kumbhakar. He would sleep for months at a time and would be extremely ravenous upon waking up, consuming anything set before him. His monstrous size and loyalty made him an important part of Ravana's army.
During the war he decimated the Vanara army before Rama cut off his limbs and head. S. He was against the kidnapping of Sita and joined the forces of Rama when Ravana refused to return her. His intricate knowledge of Lanka was vital in the war and he was crowned king after the fall of Ravana.
He had three wives: Kausalya, Kaikeyi and Sumitra. He was childless for a long time and anxious to produce an heir, he performs a fire sacrifice known as putra- kameshti yagya.
As a consequence, Rama is first born to Kausalya, Bharata is born to Kaikeyi, Lakshmana and Shatrughna are born to Sumitra. These sons are endowed, to various degrees, with the essence of the Supreme Trinity Entity Vishnu; Vishnu had opted to be born into mortality to combat the demon Ravana, who was oppressing the gods, and who could only be destroyed by a mortal.
The boys are reared as the princes of the realm, receiving instructions from the scriptures and in warfare. When Rama is 1. 6 years old, the sage Vishwamitra comes to the court of Dasharatha in search of help against demons who were disturbing sacrificial rites. He chooses Rama, who is followed by Lakshmana, his constant companion throughout the story. Rama and Lakshmana receive instructions and supernatural weapons from Vishwamitra and proceed to destroy the demons. Janaka was the king of Mithila.
One day, a female child was found in the field by the king in the deep furrow dug by his plough. Overwhelmed with joy, the king regarded the child as a .
The child was named Sita, the Sanskrit word for furrow. Sita grew up to be a girl of unparalleled beauty and charm. The king had decided that who ever could lift and wield the heavy bow, presented to his ancestors by Shiva, could marry Sita.